PILESPiles mean a lump or swelling around anal canal. We, the doctors call it hemorrhoids. Inside anus there are three vascular cushions in every human being present since birth. Which makes the passage of stool easier. Exact cause of this disease is still unknown. We call it a disease when it causes symptom like bleeding, swelling, pain, discharge, itching etc.
People having piles usually has three swelling or lump around anus.

Age: Incidence is common in the age group of 30-60. It is uncommon below 20. In the USA 50% of people above the age of 50 is affected by hemorrhoids.

Cause: Exact cause of piles is unknown. Few problem like excessive straining during defecation, constipation, diarrhea, irregular bowel habit aggravates piles. Other factors which causes piles are genetics, prolonged standing, heavy weight lifting, pregnancy, tight dress, influence of hormone, lack of fiber containing food. There are two kind of piles, external piles & internal piles.

ANAL-FISSUREAnal Fissure is a crack or wound in the anal canal. This happens due to forceful expulsion of hard stool or repeated bowel movement. Patient complains of pain and bleeding after passing stool. Variable time is required to heal this crack. If this crack gets infected then abscess may form in the anus which may lead to fistula formation. Pain in anal canal may continue for five minutes to several hours. This disease may affect any age group from infant to very old age.

Prevention: One should avoid constipation or hard stool formation. Forceful expulsion of stool should be avoided. Patients are advised to take lots of vegetables, salad, water, juices to avoid constipation.

ANAL-FISTULAFistula is tract in the anal canal and rectum. Anal canal consists of different layer of muscles and fatty cushion .The disease takes place due to infection of anal glands. There are many glands in the anal canal. When one of these glands gets infected then abscess take places. This abscess bursts in the surrounding area of anal canal and pus comes out through a hole or opening. Then pus and blood comes out through this opening. The discharge point can be any where around the canal including hip and scrotum or in case of female in the surrounding area of vagina. Occasionally cancer in the rectum or anal canal can give rise to abscess or fistula. Fistula can be of different types like simple and complex fistula. Complex fistula has different varieties. Degree of complexity depends on to what extent the fistula tract has travelled through different muscle layers and how  far deep it has entered. There are three symptom of fistula namely, swelling, pain and periodic discharge. These symptoms remain dormant for few months then recurs again. Colonoscopy, anal endosonography and MRI test can be done to delineate the fistula tract.

RECTUM CANCERSymptom: Bleeding with stool is main symptom. If the patient thinks that bleedings is always due to piles. Then it becomes dangerous. Because cancer remains undetected .With passage of times cancer spreads to the surrounding area making it hard to treat. Symptom includes bleeding mixed with stool and mucous, sense of incomplete evacuation, increased frequency of stool, pain in anus after defecation. If the cancer grows bigger, patient cannot pass stool. Abdomen gets distended; even flatus or gas can not be passed. Patient may suffer from weakness and anemia (shortage of blood). There can be abdominal pain. If cancer spreads to urinary passage there is difficulty in passing urine. In case of ladies, cancer can invade vagina and stool may come out through vagina.

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